Parties: Democratic Republic of Congo; Uganda; Chad; Eritrea; Libya; Angola; Namibia; Rwanda; Zimbabwe; Burundi; Central African Republic; South Africa; South Sudan; Tanzania; Zambia
Type: Inter-state; regional
Ceasefire Agreement (Lusaka Agreement) (DRC, Angola, Namibia, Uganda, Rwanda, Zimbabwe)
10 July 1999
The Parties to the Sirte Agreement affirmed the security and integrity of the political borders of all states and agreed to cease hostilities to pave the way for dialogue and peaceful resolution. The Parties further agreed to deployment of neutral African peacekeeping forces in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and reaffirmed the need to hold those responsible for the perpetration of mass murder accountable. The Parties encouraged the DRC to hold a national dialogue for all intra-state conflicting parties and pledged to refrain from taking action to overthrow the regime in the DRC.
The Parties to the Lusaka Agreement recognised and reaffirmed the equal rights and protection under the law as citizens of all ethnic groups in the DRC. The Parties further agreed that the conflict in the DRC has both internal and external dimensions that require intra-Congolese political negotiations and implementation of this Agreement. The Agreement provided for the respect and protection of human rights of the civilian population in DRC and provided for the cessation of propaganda, recruitment of child soldiers, sexual violence and summary executions and guaranteed the free movement of people and goods. The Agreement provided for the release of detained persons and allowed them to relocate to any province in the DRC or country where their security would be guaranteed. Joint African Union–United Nations peacekeeping forces were provided for. The Agreement further instituted an open national dialogue between the DRC Government and the armed opposition, namely the RCD and MLC, forces vives as well as unarmed opposition towards a new political dispensation and national reconciliation in the DRC. It would be mediated by a neutral facilitator. The Parties to the Dialogue would agree on the new draft Constitution, institutions of good governance and the process for free, democratic and transparent elections. Following the conclusion of the national dialogue, there would be a mechanism for the formation of a national, restructured and integrated army. Countries of origin of militias may agree to amnesty, except for suspects of the crime of genocide. The Parties to the conflict in DRC would also agree on a consultative mechanism on issues of general interest, including public health, education and migration.
The Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework provided for a renewed commitment from the DRC to deepen security sector reform, consolidate State authority, make progress with decentralisation and further economic development, including through infrastructure, service delivery and institutional reform, and to further the agenda for reconciliation. It also provided for a renewed commitment to regional cooperation and economic integration, including the revitalisation of the Economic Community of the Great Lakes Region and facilitation of administration of justice.