CSVR | CENTRE FOR THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AND RECONCILIATION
Peace Agreements

Political Accord to Resolve the Political Security Crisis in Central African Republic

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Parties: The presidential majority, democratic opposition, political-military movements and the SELEKA coalition

Type: Intra-state

Accord politique de Libreville sur la résolution de la crise politico-sécuritaire en République Centrafricaine (Libreville Accord)

11 January 2013

Accord de cessez-le-feu entre le Gouvernement de la République Centrafricaine et la Coalition

11 January 2013

Accord de cessation des hostilités en République centrafricaine

23 July 2014

Agreement between the Transitional Government and the Armed Groups on the Principles of Disarmament, Demobilisation, Reintegration and Repatriation and of Integration into the Uniformed State Forces of the Central African Republic

10 May 2015

Republican Pact for Peace, National Reconciliation and Reconstruction in the Central African Republic

11 May 2015

Entente de Sant’Egidio: Accord Politique pour la paix en République Centrafricaine

2017

Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation in the Central African Republic

February 2019

The Libreville Accord determines that the incumbent president may not stand for a further term, and that a Unity Government is established for a period of 12 months which has the mandate to organise national elections, reorganise the defence and security forces and the territorial administration, and reform the judicial system and social and economic systems.

A ceasefire agreement between the government and SELEKA signed on the same day as the Libreville Accord additionally provides for a priority programme to ensure the return of displaced persons, protection of human rights, reorganisation of the security and defence forces and rehabilitation of the zones affected by the conflict.

A Cessation of Hostilities Agreement was signed in 2014 by ex-combatants and armed elements who agree to be included in national reconciliation processes and to promote favourable circumstances for the return of refugees and IDPs. It also provides for a programme to prioritise return of persons displaced by the conflict and rehabilitation of the zones affected by the conflict.

The 2015 Agreement on DDR provides for combatants to return to their communities of origin and take part in social reinsertion, reconstruction and development programmes, community violence reduction programmes and national income-generation programmes for combatants and at-risk youth.

The Republican Pact for Peace, National Reconciliation and Reconstruction is a comprehensive agreement providing for governance (democratic and economic) and institutional reforms, including the establishment, in the new Constitution, of a high authority on good governance as an independent institution and reform of the legal framework for political parties and that governing the press. It provides for the adoption of a constitutional provision ruling out the possibility of amnesty for crimes against humanity, war crimes and crimes of genocide. It further provides for rules ensuring that civil service appointments, promotions and advancements reflect equitable geographical and community representation, as well as performance and regional and gender balance. It provides for the establishment of a Territorial Council to strengthen the role of local, traditional and customary authorities in social cohesion and inclusiveness.

In terms of justice and reconciliation, the Pact provides for respect of human rights, including strengthening the role of the courts in enforcement, the observance of Islamic holy days as public holidays in the interest of equity and the creation of an environment for the return of refugees and IDPs. It provides for the establishment of the Special Criminal Court in the Central African Republic, strengthening the capacity of local courts and the establishment of the Justice, Truth, Reparations and Reconciliation Commission to investigate crimes and identify who would be subjected to payment of reparations or prosecution. It also provides for the institution of a day of remembrance of the victims of the crisis. It finally also provides for economic and social development, including through rehabilitation and reconstruction programmes, focussing on the most disadvantaged parts of the country.

In the Sant’Egidio Agreement, the parties commit to representation of the political military groups in national reconciliation and security reform, the reform and registration of these groups as political parties, and to work with the international community, legitimate political institutions and traditional and religious authorities towards reconciliation. The parties decide to establish a Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission with a 12-month mandate, with the aim to produce recommendations on the traditional processes for reconciliation and pardon, the liberation of detained combatants, the reinstatement of leaders of politico-military groups and the adoption of reconciliation laws. It provides for reform of security forces to include the politico-military groups, protection of human movement and wildlife, and economic, humanitarian and social plans, including rebuilding of priority infrastructure, return of refugees and technical training and bursaries for study.

The Political Agreement of 2019 recognises the role of women in the resolution of the conflict and building sustainable peace, while acknowledging them also as victims of the conflict. It recognises the need for a common shared vision incorporating forgiveness and national reconciliation. Under the principles for a lasting peace, it includes the need for affirmative action and other measures to address inequalities, including between regions; recognition of religious and cultural differences; inclusive governance systems; and respect for human rights. It commits the government to adopt a new act on decentralisation, create mechanisms for equitable representation in the civil service, ensure that political parties can be established without restriction, continue security sector reform, create conditions for voluntary return and resettlement of refugees and IDPs, and create conditions for equitable sharing in natural resource revenue by the whole population.

The state should further establish national- and local-level development programmes, promote access to social services, “initiate, through dialogue and the local committees on peace and transitional justice, an extensive campaign on national reconciliation” and “accelerate the process to establish the Commission on Truth, Justice, Reparation and Reconciliation”. The armed groups are required to return all occupied property. In terms of justice and reconciliation, the parties reject impunity and “acknowledge the painful consequences and the wounds left by grave crimes on all citizens and communities”. They commit to accelerate the establishment of the Commission on Truth, Justice, Reparation and Reconciliation with the aim of promoting truth, justice, reparation, national reconciliation and forgiveness, and agree to establish a trust fund to guarantee rehabilitation and reparations due to victims. The parties further agree to establish a system of effective and equitable management of seasonal pastoral migration in order to make it a secure and peaceful activity.