Peace Agreements

Northern Mali Peace Agreements

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Parties:Government of the Republic of Mali; Unified Movements and Fronts of Azawad (MFUA)

Type: Intra-state

Pacte national conclu entre le gouvernement de la République du Mali et les mouvements et Fronts Unifiés de l’Azawad consacrant le statut particulier du nord au Mali (Bamako Peace Pact)

11 April 1992

In the Preamble, the Parties agreed to reach a solution that takes into account the cultural, geographic and socio-economic diversities in Mali, and which consolidates national unity and integrity. They agreed to abide by the Constitution and respect for human rights, and defend the rights of women and children. The Government committed to remain respectful of the right of the populations to freely decide on the designation of their local, regional and interregional land, and to call it Azawad. The Parties agreed to the total voluntary integration on the basis of competence of the MFUA combatants into the National Armed Forces and agreed that the police and gendarmerie would reflect the composition of the local populations. Disused barracks would be reused as vocational training facilities. As part of measures to restore confidence, eliminate factors of insecurity and establish definitive security, there would be a substantial, gradual and appropriate reduction of the current armed forces in the North. The safety of displaced populations to return home would be guaranteed in line with a repatriation programme, to be implemented within 60 days.

Two funds would be established: 1) the Development and Reintegration Fund to promote the creation of Small and Medium Industries (PMI) and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), and 2) the Assistance and Compensation Fund to the civilian and military victims of both parties and to their beneficiaries of all consequences of the armed conflict. An Independent Investigation Commission would be established to investigate all the events that took place in Mali in relation to the problems of the North, which would work to define the responsibilities of these acts and their consequences, and to assess the damages and reparations due to the victims. The Agreement set out the composition and functioning of the Commission. The Commission would deliver its conclusions within three months of the date of its start and the report would be made public and the recommendations implemented within 45 days.

The Parties agreed to decentralisation of power and the principle of administrative redistribution relating to each level of territorial organisation in northern Mali through elected assemblies that would be competent to organise their urban and rural community life, define and promote their economic, social and cultural development programmes, control the forces for maintaining order at local and regional levels and operate in horizontal and vertical complementarity. An inter-regional assembly would be established at the level of the regions of northern Mali, and each region of northern Mali would have an assembly democratically elected by the local population. There would also be local councils at municipality level. A Commissioner for Northern Mali would be appointed to implement this Pact.

A special 10-year development plan for Northern Mali would also be instituted, to reduce inequality between Northern Mali and the rest of the country, together with a preferential and incentive tax regime to attract investment. There would also be integration of executives of the Movements and of people from Northern Mali in the central bodies of the National Defence Staff and of displaced persons into the National Assembly. A special civil and military training and education programme would be initiated for the benefit of the populations of Northern Mali.

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