CSVR | CENTRE FOR THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AND RECONCILIATION
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has a history of unaddressed mass atrocities. In the 16th and 17th centuries the British, Dutch, and Portuguese built a slave trade in the DRC. Political turmoil kicked off by a mutiny by the Congolese following their independence from Belgium in 1960 led to a coup in 1965,...
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (Commission Verité et Réconciliation) (2003-2007) was mandated to investigate human rights violations committed from 1960 until the end of the transition in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. According to its founding legislation, the objectives and responsibilities of the commission included consolidating national unity, cohesion and social justice; restoring the...
The Acts of Engagement on South Kivu and on North Kivu contain the exact same wording. The Acts provided for the establishment of a Joint Technical Peace and Security Commission by the Government and the international facilitators of the agreement, towards restoration of State authority, including the police, administration and justice, as well as integration...
The Parties to the Sirte Agreement affirmed the security and integrity of the political borders of all states and agreed to cease hostilities to pave the way for dialogue and peaceful resolution. The Parties further agreed to deployment of neutral African peacekeeping forces in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and reaffirmed the need to...
The Parties agreed to the transformation of the CNDP into a political party, the integration of its police and security forces into the Congolese National Police and the National Armed Forces, and CNDP’s participation in politics. The Parties agreed to the release of political prisoners and the enactment of an amnesty law, as well as...
The Parties reached an agreement on 11 points, including the decision by M23 to transform itself into a political party, amnesty to M23 for acts of war and insurgency, demobilisation of former M23 combatants, return of refugees and IDPs to their homes, formation of a commission to handle the return of property (including land), national...
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) experienced political instability, armed conflict and humanitarian crises from its independence from Belgian colonial rule in 1960 to its political transition in 2006. Political power struggles and coups d’état resulted in periods of conflict escalation known as the Congo Wars, occurring in 1996 and again in 1998 (Lwanzo...
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