CSVR | CENTRE FOR THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AND RECONCILIATION
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Chad has a long history of conflict dating to its independence from France in 1960. These conflicts have historically involved interference from international actors. Against this backdrop, Hissène Habré came to power in 1982 and remained in power until 1990. During this time he gained a reputation as one of Africa’s most brutal dictators. Habré...
For a long time after its independence from France in August 1960, the West African country of Côte d’Ivoire enjoyed relative political and economic stability. Félix Houphouët-Boigny became the country’s first prime minister and, when his party won all the parliamentary seats, he became president. Houphouët-Boigny would go on to win the presidential election for a record...
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has a history of unaddressed mass atrocities. In the 16th and 17th centuries the British, Dutch, and Portuguese built a slave trade in the DRC. Political turmoil kicked off by a mutiny by the Congolese following their independence from Belgium in 1960 led to a coup in 1965,...
Ethiopia experienced two political crises in the second half of the 20th century, one in 1974 and another in 1991. The 1991 crisis was believed to have brought democracy to the country, which suffered for years under autocratic and dictatorial rule. Right after the fall of the military regime, a transitional government was established to...
After Kenya’s independence from Britain in 1963, Jomo Kenyatta became the first prime minister and later president of the country from 1963 until his death in 1978. Kenyatta’s administration was dominated by Kikuyus, his own ethnic group, who also dominated the military and public administration.
Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi came to power in 1960 after overthrowing King Idris in a coup d’état. Qaddafi remained the head of state until his violent removal and death during the 2011 revolution. At the time, Libya’s uprising surpassed those of other Arab Spring countries with regard to the level of violence and human rights...
The antagonism between Hutu and Tutsi that led to the 1994 genocide has its roots in the colonial period. From seizing power in 1897, the German colonizers failed to acknowledge the particular meanings given to the categories of Hutu and Tutsi in precolonial society. In general, the term ‘Hutu’ was used to describe the followers...
In March 1991, a growing rebel force in neighboring Liberia known as the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) invaded Sierra Leone, commencing one of the most violent civil wars in modern history. With the support of Liberian President Charles Taylor, RUF Commander Foday Sankoh recruited Sierra Leonean youths struggling with unemployment and lack of access to...
The Republic of South Sudan declared independence from the Republic of the Sudan in 2011. Prior to its independence, South Sudan fought two wars against the Khartoum government in Sudan from 1955 to 1972 and from 1983 to 2005, which resulted in the deaths of at least 1.5 million and the displacement of over four...
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