Peace Agreements

Somalia Peace Agreements

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Parties: Somali Africans Muki Organisation (SAMO); Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA); Somali Democratic Movement (SDM); Somali National Democratic Union (SNDU); Somali National Front (SNF); Somali National Union (SNU); Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM); Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM) (sna); Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF); Southern Somali National Movement (SSNM) (sna); United Somali Congress (USC) (sna); United Somali Congress (USC); United Somali Front (USF); United Somali Party (USP); Somali National Movement (SNM) (the latter only in the 1994 Declaration)

Type: Intra-state

General Agreement

08 January 1993

Agreement on Implementing the Ceasefire and on Modalities of Disarmament

15 January 1993

Agreement on the Establishment of an Ad Hoc Committee

15 January 1993

Addis Ababa Agreement Concluded at the First Session of the Conference on National Reconciliation in Somalia

27 March 1993

Declaration by the Leaders of the Somali Political Organisations (Signatories to Addis Ababa Agreement and SNM)

24 March 1994

The Parties to the General Agreement agreed to the convening of a National Reconciliation Conference, the establishment of further mechanisms for the continuation of free dialogue amongst all political factions and leaders in preparation of the Conference, the immediate cessation of all hostile propaganda against each other and the creation of an atmosphere conducive to reconciliation and peace. The Parties agreed to facilitate the free movement of Somali people throughout the entire country. The Parties agreed to reach consensus on the creation of a mechanism for disarmament and the agenda and criteria for participation in the National Conference.

The Parties to the Agreement on Implementing the Ceasefire and on Modalities of Disarmament agreed on the encampment of the militias of all political movements and that they would be disarmed. The future status of the encamped militia would be decided at the time of the final political settlement in Somalia, but meanwhile, the international community would be requested to assist in training them with civilian skills in preparation for possible demobilisation. All other armed elements, including bandits, would be disarmed immediately and assisted through rehabilitation and integration into civil society. The Parties agreed in principle that properties unlawfully taken during the fighting would be returned to the lawful owners and agreed to the release of prisoners of war.

The Parties to the Agreement on the Establishment of an Ad Hoc Committee agreed to establish an Ad Hoc Committee to resolve the question of the agenda and criteria for participation in the National Reconciliation Conference. The Ad Hoc Committee would work in consultation with all Somali political movements and submit its recommendation on the criteria to the whole.

The Parties to the Addis Ababa Agreement pledged to consolidate and carry forward advances in peace, security and dialogue made since the beginning of 1993 and committed to continuing the peace process. The Parties affirmed the need to uproot banditry and to undertake comprehensive, impartial and transparent disarmament. The Parties agreed on the need to establish an impartial National and Regional Somali Police Force in all regions of the country on an urgent basis, including through recruitment and training of young Somalis from all regions. The Parties stressed the need for relief, reconstruction and rehabilitation programmes in Somalia, and agreed that private or public properties that were illegally confiscated or stolen would be returned to the rightful owners. The Parties agreed that all disputes must henceforth be settled by dialogue, negotiations and other peaceful and legal means.

The Parties agreed that a two-year transitional period would focus on the provision of essential services, complete disarmament, restoration of peace, the attainment of reconciliation, the rehabilitation and reconstruction of basic infrastructure and the building of democratic institutions. The Parties agreed to establish four transitional organs: a Transitional National Council (TNC), Central Administrative Departments, Regional Councils and District Councils. The TNC would be responsible for establishing an independent Judiciary, and would appoint a Transitional Charter Drafting Committee to draft a Transitional Charter building on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Somali traditional ethics. The TNC would appoint a Peace Delegation composed of political movements and other elements to travel to all parts of the country for the purpose of advancing the peace and reconciliation process as well as to explain the agreements reached. The TNC would appoint a National Committee to bring about reconciliation.

In the 1994 Declaration the Parties rejected any form of violence as a means of resolving conflict and stressed respect for and preservation of fundamental human rights and democratic principles and the need for rehabilitation and reconstruction of the country. The Parties agreed to hold a meeting to set up rules and procedures of voting and criteria of participation in the National Reconciliation Conference, and to determine the modalities for establishing the National Legislative Assembly, which would be formed after the formation of the National Government. The Parties agreed on the date of the National Reconciliation Conference during which the President, Vice-Presidents and Prime Minister would be appointed. The Parties agreed to complete and review the formation of local authorities, where needed, and establish them, where necessary, as a basis for regional autonomy and respect for community rights. The Parties agreed to establish an independent judiciary.

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