The agreement establishing the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) states that its aims and objectives include promoting joint development strategies and gradually harmonising macro-economic policies and programmes in the social, technological and scientific fields, as well as promoting peace and stability in the subregion and creating mechanisms within the subregion for the prevention, management and resolution of inter- and intra-state conflicts through dialogue.

Agreement Establishing the Intergovernmental Authority on Development

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The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) is a political and economic community of eight East African countries. This agreement established IGAD and laid out the terms of its formation, including the liberalisation of trade policy within the community, the harmonisation of various development policies, and increased cooperation in addressing an array of issues such as conflict and natural disasters. Article 6A commits members “the peaceful settlement of inter- and intra-State conflicts through dialogue” and the “recognition, promotion and protection of human and people’s rights in accordance with the provisions of the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights.” Article 13A(s) commits members to facilitating “repatriation and reintegration of refugees, returnees and displaced persons and demobilized soldiers in cooperation with relevant governmental and non-governmental organizations in accordance with the existing national, regional and international instruments.” Article 18A(b) commits members to “establish an effective mechanism of consultation and cooperation for the pacific settlement of differences and disputes.”

IGAD Regional Reconciliation Framework and Dialogue Index


This is a tool which was proposed in September 2018 following the third Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) High Level Retreat on Mediation, a platform for discussion of the role of “reconciliation and dialogue in peace processes.” The aim behind the proposal was to prevent and resolve conflict, and assist with post-conflict transformation. An IGAD announcement about the proposal notes that “the mediators [at the high level retreat] extensively touched on ways to enhance gender responsive dialogue in the reconciliation process [and] how the youth can be engaged to strengthen reconciliation processes as well as a faith based approach to dialogue and reconciliation in order to address cross cutting issues like human rights, justice, spiritual healing, forgiveness and so on.” Key recommendations relating to transitional justice include “capacity building in methods to dialogue and in trauma healing, institutional strengthening for effective transitional justice, healing and reconciliation and [a recommendation for] IGAD to develop a regional policy on reconciliation and dialogue.”

Protocol on the Establishment of a Conflict Early Warning Response Mechanisms for IGAD Countries


This protocol, launched in 2002, establishes the Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism (CEWARN) of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD). According to Article 5, CEWARN is designed to fulfil several functions, including the gathering and analysis of information about conflict in the region and the communication of that information and analysis to IGAD officials. Other functions include “setting standards,” “promoting dialogue on information and analysis,” “networking among information gathering organizations” and “verifying information received from CEWERUs [national-level early warning and response mechanisms].” CEWARN is a fact-finding institution by nature and therefore shows some potential to be instrumentalised by transitional justice practitioners.

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