CSVR | CENTRE FOR THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AND RECONCILIATION

Author : Sinqobile Makhathini

After years of British colonialism and later white minority rule, the liberation movements in Rhodesia achieved black majority rule with the signing of the Lancaster House Settlement in 1979. In March 1980, the country held its first democratic elections, resulting in Robert Mugabe, of the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) political party, becoming the...

Author : Lesego Sekhu

A former French colony, Chad gained independence in August 1960. François Tombalbaye, leader of the Progressive Party (Parti Progressiste Tchadien, or PPT), became the first elected president of Chad. Shortly after, Tombalbaye dissolved all political parties, except the PPT, and by 1963 Chad was a one-party state. The PPT leadership, like the Chadian army, were...

Author : Lesego Sekhu

During Alegria’s war of independence against France (1954–1962), a number of revolutionary groups emerged, with the most prominent being the National Liberation Front (Front de Liberation Nationale, or FLN). As part of the agreement ending colonial occupation, the FLN banned political opposition, making Algeria a one-party state for 27 years.
In February 1965, The Gambia gained independence from colonial Britain, becoming a republic in April 1970. Dawda Jawara, head of the People’s Progressive Party, was the first prime minister and first elected president of independent Gambia. In July 1981, the government prevented a coup with the help of Senegalese forces. In 1982, Jawara and Senegalese...
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