Peace Agreements

Peace Agreements between the Government of Comoros and the Opposition

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Parties: Government of Comoros (Anjouan, Moheli and Grande Comore); Opposition: Forum/Federation/PRC, National Union for Development/National Front for Justice, civil society

Type: Intra-state

Addis Ababa Agreement

13 December 1997

Accords d’Antananarivo

23 April 1999

Accord cadre pour la reconciliation aux Comores (Accord de Fomboni)

17 February 2001

Accord sur les dispositions transitoires aux Comores (Accord de Maroni)

20 December 2003

The Parties to the Addis Ababa Agreement requested the establishment of an international commission of inquiry, which would be requested to identify the responsibilities, evaluate the damage caused on the two islands (Anjouan and Moheli) during the crisis and propose measures likely to enable victims to obtain the necessary compensation. The Parties further agreed to hold “an Inter-Island Comorian Conference with a view to defining a new institutional framework meeting the legitimate aspirations of the Comorians” within the unity and territorial integrity of Comoros.

The Antananarivo Accord aims to define the new institutional framework promised in the Addis Ababa Agreement. The Accord provides for division of powers between the Central Government and the islands. While competences linked to the sovereignty of the State are exercised by the Central Government exclusively, all the other competences belong exclusively to the Islands, with the exception of those which are exercised jointly or concurrently by the Central Government and the Islands, such as Justice, Planning, Taxation and International Cooperation. The Accord guarantees public and civil liberties and human rights and provides for equitable sharing of resources between the Islands and the Central Government. It provides for the functioning of the National Executive, Legislature, Supreme Court and the governance of the Islands. It further renamed the State as “Union of Comoros Islands”. It provides for principles of good governance, including control mechanisms to ensure sound and transparent management of public affairs at all levels, rule of law and balanced distribution of public investments. The Accord provides for a Transitional Government, with the current prime minister and members of government prohibited from standing for election under the new dispensation. It also provides for the establishment of a Commission responsible for recording the national heritage. The transitional period is established for one year, after which free movement of goods and people must be fully established. The Anjouan delegation to the talks refused to sign the Agreement.

 The Famboni Agreement is similarly aimed at power sharing at the level of the Islands, to allow them to pursue their socio-economic development and administer their own affairs, while reinforcing national cohesion. The Agreement aims to establish justice, equality, democracy, good governance and respect for human rights and public liberties, and to involve all Comorians in the process. It provides for the establishment of a Tripartite Commission for National Reconciliation and the Definition of a New Comorian Ensemble. The Commission is composed of a delegation from each of the Islands, representing the Government, the Anjouan Authority, the opposition and civil society. It constitutes the forum for the debate towards finding a durable solution to the crisis and to elaborate the draft Constitution. The Commission would also be responsible for weapon collection and reintegration of youth. The Agreement further establishes an Independent National Electoral and Accreditation Commission with a mandate to revise the electoral code, sensitise voters, prepare voter cards and a voters roll and supervise the constitutional referendum. It establishes a transitional unity government.

The Maroni Accord builds on the previous agreement in that it reconfirms the previous arrangements as appropriate for addressing the crisis. It further commits the Parties to holding open, just and democratic elections for the whole territory. The Parties agree on the need to rapidly put in place the institutions of Comoros in order to end the suffering of the people and unlock international funding for socio-economic development. The Accord provides for transitional measures, including in relation to customs and a budget for the transitional period. The national armed forces remain under the command of the Union, but for the transitional period may assist the presidents of the Islands during the elections, in close consultation with the Electoral Commission, and may not be implicated in the electoral process

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