Peace Agreements

Agreement between the Government of Angola and UNITA

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Parties: Angola; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)

Type: Intra-state

Memorandum of Understanding (Luena Agreement)

04 April 2002

Agreement Signed by the Government of the Republic of Angola and UNITA Renovada (Luanda Protocol)

18 February 1999

Lusaka Protocol

15 November 1994

Peace Accords for Angola (Bicesse Accords)

31 May 1991

The first agreement, the Bicesse Accords, was aimed mainly at regulating a ceasefire, with some fundamental elements for peace contained in Attachment II. The comprehensive Lusaka Protocol was supposed to bring an end to the conflict; however, the agreements were broken, and the Luanda Protocol and Leuna Agreement were adopted to clarify further issues and recommit to implementing the Lusaka Protocol.

The Bicesse Accords in their attachments provide for UNITA to conduct political activities within a multi-party democracy, constitutional as well as electoral reform and respect for human rights. The ceasefire would also signal the start of the creation of a National Army.

The Lusaka Protocol is a comprehensive agreement providing for several aspects of TJ. In terms of security reform, it provides for the formation of a new Angolan Armed Forces, which would reflect proportionality between Government and UNITA forces, with a national social reintegration plan for excess military personnel. It also provides for appropriate professional training of the Angolan National Police, as an “instrument for reinforcing national reconciliation” and incorporation of UNITA members. A section of the Protocol is dedicated to national reconciliation, and states that “the serious crisis prevailing in the country requires a comprehensive solution that would lead to the coming together of all Angolans to live together peacefully in the same Fatherland and in a spirit of cooperation, in the pursuit of the common good”. It provides for participation by UNITA members in political, administrative and economic activity, decentralisation of government, the employment of mass media to promote coexistence, a Government sensitisation campaign and social welfare and reintegration programmes throughout the country. Furthermore, a Law of Amnesty is to be adopted, providing amnesty for “illegal acts committed by anyone prior to the signing of the Lusaka protocol, in the context of the current conflict” and citizens are required to “forgive and forget the offenses”. There is also provision for the revision of the national symbols.

The Luanda Protocol provides for implementation of arrangements for political and electoral issues.

The Luena Agreement deals with two relevant matters: amnesty and security sector reform. It provides for an “Amnesty Law covering all crimes committed in conjunction with the armed conflict between UNITA Military Forces and the Government”. In terms of reforms, it expounds on the modalities for integrating general officers, senior officers, junior officers, non-commissioned officers and junior enlisted personnel from UNITA Military Forces, in accordance with existing vacancies into the National Armed forces and the National Police.

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