Peace Agreements

Sudan Peace Agreement

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Parties: Government of Sudan; United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF); South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A); Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM/A); South Sudan Independents Group (SSIG); Equatoria Defence Force (DF); Union of Sudanese African Parties (USAP); Bor Group

Type: Intra-state

Sudan Peace Agreement

21 April 1997

The Parties to the Agreement reaffirmed the principles in the 1996 Political Charter and agreed that for a four-year interim period South Sudan would enjoy special status. The Parties agreed to a general amnesty proclamation for members of SSDF from any criminal or civil culpability relating to acts committed during the period of the war, and the right of the people of South Sudan to exercise the right to self-determination through a proclamation to decide on unity or secession. The Parties agreed that citizenship, not religion, would be the basis of rights and duties and all Sudanese would share equally in all aspects of life and political responsibilities. The Parties agreed that legislation would not adversely affect the religious rights of any citizen, and that Sharia and custom would be the sources of legislation, but that national laws would be of a general nature based on general principles common to all, with states having the ability to make complementary legislation on issues peculiar to them. The Parties agreed that the Constitution would encompass basic rights and liberties.

The Parties agreed that the judiciary would be independent and decentralised, and that participatory democracy would be realised through congresses and a national convention. In terms of power sharing, the Parties agreed on the powers to be exercised by the federal institutions and those to be exercised at state level, with the agreement that state economic development would be in accordance with federal planning. In relation to wealth sharing, the Parties agreed that the Federal Government would lay down a comprehensive economic and social plan to develop the country in general and to bridge the gap between the various states and reach parity of basic needs such as security, employment, water, food, education, health and housing. The Parties also agreed that there would be established development projects to promote and maintain peace and stability among the people of Sudan, with Major Federal development projects and big mining and oil projects considered as national wealth. The Parties agreed that the Federal Government would allocate an equitable percentage of the returns to be fixed by the Revenue Allocation Commission to the state where the project is located, and provide for participation of the states in the management of projects. In distributing revenue the federal government would give priority to the less developed states according to their state of underdevelopment.

The Parties agreed that the Federal Government and the Coordinating Council would launch a plan and joint international appeal for the reconstruction, rehabilitation, repatriation and development of the Southern States and other war-affected areas. The Agreement also provided explicitly for participation of Southern citizens in all federal institutions. The Coordinating Council to be established for the duration of the transitional period would be responsible for coordination, supervision, socio-economic planning, confidence building, peace nurturing, policy-making as well as political mobilisation in the South. There was also provision made for devolved and concurrent powers between the Coordinating Council and the Federal Government. For the duration of the interim period, the South Sudan Defence Force would remain separate from the National Army and be stationed in their locations. The Parties agreed to establish a Joint Amnesty Commission and Joint Amnesty Tribunal.

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